AWT and Swing. Not really popular in mainstream GUI design. But can be really helpful in learning the MVC architecture and building small interfaces.
Model, View, Controller.
“It divides a given application into three interconnected parts in order to separate internal representations of information from the ways that information is presented to and accepted from the user.The MVC design pattern decouples these major components allowing for efficient code reuse and parallel development.”
—- “Model-view-controller” from Wikipedia
Frame includes the title and menu bars or other optional buttons and textfields.
Panel is the main area where textfields, buttons etc.